The Agreement on Agriculture (the Agreement) came into force on 1 January 1995. The preamble to the agreement recognizes that the long-term objective of the reform process under the Uruguay Round reform programme is to establish a fair and market-oriented agricultural trade system. The reform agenda includes specific commitments to reduce support and protection in the areas of domestic support, export subsidies and market access, as well as by defining more effective and effective GATT rules and disciplines. The agreement also takes into account non-trade issues, including food security and the need to protect the environment, and provides developing countries with special and differentiated treatment, including improving opportunities and conditions of access to agricultural products of particular export interest to these members. The country-specific implementation period is the six-year period that begins in 1995. However, developing countries have the flexibility to implement their reductions and other specific commitments over a period of up to ten years. Members were given the choice to implement their concessions and commitments on the basis of years of timing, marketing (harvesting) or taxes. A year of WTO members` introduction for tariff reductions may therefore differ from that of export subsidy reductions. For the purposes of the peace clause, the implementation period is the nine-year period that begins in 1995. Recalling further that the aforementioned long-term objective is to allow a substantial gradual reduction in agricultural aid and land protection, which are maintained over an agreed period, which has the effect of correcting and preventing restrictions and distortions on world agricultural markets; The agreement has been criticized by civil society groups for reducing customs protection for small farmers, an important source of income in developing countries, while allowing rich countries to continue subsidizing agriculture in their own countries.
(i) the year covered in paragraph (f) and, with respect to a member`s specific obligations, refers to the timetable, financial campaign or marketing campaign set out in the list for that member. Export subsidies are the third pillar. The 1995 agricultural agreement required industrialized countries to reduce export subsidies by at least 36% (in value terms) or by 21% (by volume) over a six-year value. For developing countries, the agreement called for reductions of 24% (in value) and 14% (in volume) over ten years.